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Carnitine


2017-12-28 00:00:00

Carnitine from the Latin. saro, born. case carnis-meat betaine 3-hydroxy-4-trimetilaminomaslyanoy to-you, supposedly. m. 161.21; bestsv. crystals; mp L-and D, L-carnitine, respectively. 142 and 197-212 & deg; C dec .; for L-carnitine [ a ] D 20 -30, 9 & deg; water; hygroscopic, well sol. water and ethanol. In the interaction. with an aqueous alkali p-rum easily dehydrated to form betaine trimetilaminokrotonovoy 4-to-you krotonobetain. K arnitin present in the tissues of animals in means. number of islands in the muscles, bacteria and plants biol. activity has only L-carnitine. Nek-insects eg., The larvae of mealworms Tenebrio molitor, for which carnitine-a growth factor, do not synthesize it for them carnitine- In the cytoplasm of fatty to-you long chain are active. state as thioesters with coenzyme A [KoSCOR; KoS-the rest of the coenzyme A KoSH, COR acyl fatty to-you], to-not able to penetrate through the membrane. On the outer side of the membrane under the influence of the built-in membrane carnitine acyltransferase I catalyzed by p-tion:
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The resulting acyl-carnitine is carried by the enzyme carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase-to ext. side of the membrane. Here, with the participation of carnitine acyltransferase II also built into the membrane occurs resynthesis KoSCOR, carnitine and freed again transferred through periplazmatich. space for ext. side of the membrane. T. arr. By carnitine fatty to-you are within the scope of the oxide. Chem. carnitine synthesis is usually carried out by treating epichlorohydrin with trimethylamine sequentially and an alkali metal cyanide, hydrolyzing the resulting nitrile with 3-hydroxy-4-to-you trimetilaminomaslyanoy to carnitine. Splitting into optical instruments. isomers is performed at the stage of the nitrile. Al. synthesis pathway of L-carnitine-stereospecific. recovery via a yeast-octyl-3-oxo-4 to L-hlorbutirata octyl-3-hydroxy-4-hlorbutirata, interaction. last and last with trimethylamine. hydrolyzing the resulting product. Carnitine is used in medicine in the form of D, L-and L-karnitinhlorida as nonsteroidal anabolic. Wed-wa. Lit .: A. Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, Acad. from Eng., vol. 2, Moscow, 1985, p. 554-55; Carnitine biosynthesis and function. Minisymposium, St. Louis, Missouri, June 4, 1981, "Federal. Proceeding", 1982, v. 41, № 12, p. 2840-42. A. M. Jurkiewicz.
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