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Category Thermotechnics  

The consequences of the greenhouse effect
One of the main products of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is carbon dioxide CO 2 , which does not apply to toxic gases. Annual emissions of CO 2 is 130 ... 1.1 trillion.

Types of heat exchangers
heat exchange apparatus is any device in which a fluid-hot-transmitting medium heat another liquid-cold environment. As a coolant in thermal devices use a variety of drip and elastic fluids in a wide range of pressures and temperatures.

Criterion equation of convective heat transfer
Using the theory of similarity of the system of differential equations 10.4, 10.9, 10.10 and 10.11, you can get the heat equation 10.3 for c

The composition of the fuel
Theme 13. Energy fuel. 13.1. The fuel composition Fuel is called a fuel substance used as a source of heat in the energy, industrial and heating systems. Depending on the type of reactions that result generates heat from the fuel distinguish organic and nuclear fuel . At present, and projected to 2030 fossil fuels is the main source of heat energy for industrial use.

Toxic gases of combustion products
18.1. Toxic gases of combustion products The products of combustion, the calculation of which is set out in the p/n 16.3 16 threads, have a decisive influence on the energy and environmental performance of various thermal plants.

The amount of combustion products
When the complete combustion of fuel combustion products contain gases: CO 2 , S 2 O, N 2 , O 2 and water vapor H 2 O, t. e. CO 2 + S 2 O + N 2 + O 2 + H 2 O = 100%. The total volume of the combustion V r m 3 /kg is the sum of the volume of dry gas V sg. and water vapor V H2O : V r = V sg. + V H2O , 16.11 In this case, V sg. = V RO2 + V N2 + V O2 , where V R2O = V CO2 + V SO2 -volume triatomic gas, m 3 /kg; V N2 + V O2 -the amount of diatomic gases, m 3 /kg. 1.When a r = 1 1. For solid except shale and liquid fuels theoretical volumes m 3 /kg of complete combustion products are determined by the formulas: a. amount of diatomic gases: V o N2 = 0,79V o + 0,8N o /100; 16.12 b. volume triatomic gases: V RO2 = 0,0187S p + 0,375 S p L ; 16.13 a. volume of dry gas: V o sg. = V RO2 + V o N2 = 0.0187 = C p + 0,3753 S p L + 0,79V o + 0,8N o /100; 16.14 Mr. the amount of water vapor: V o H2O = 0,01249N p + W p + 0,0161V o ; 16.15 d. the total volume of the combustion products: V o r = V o sg. + V o H2O = 0,0187 C p + 0,3753 S p L + 0,79V o + 0,8N o /100 + 0,01249N p + W p + 0,0161V o ; 16.16 2. For the shale volume triatomic gases is defined by the formula: V RO2K = V RO2 + [0,509SO 2 p a /100] K = 0,0187S p + 0,375 S p L [0,509SO 2 p a /100] There are, 16.17 where K-factor decomposition of carbonates: bed firing at K = 0.7; kamernom-at 1.0. 3. For gaseous fuel theoretical volume of the combustion m 3 /m 3 are determined by the formulas: a. amount of diatomic gases V o N2 = 0,79 V o + N 2 /100; 16.18 b. volume triatomic gases V RO2 = 0,01 [CO 2 + CO + H 2 S + S mC m H n ]; 16.19 a. volume of dry gas: V o sg. = V RO2 + V o N2 ; 16.20 Mr. the amount of water vapor V o h2O = 0,01 [H 2 S + H 2 + S n/2C m H n + 0,124d r + 0,0161V o , 16.21 where d r -the moisture content of the fuel gas, referred to 1 m 3 of dry gas, g/m 3 ; d. the total volume of the combustion products V o r = V o sg. + V o H2O . 16.22 B. When a r 1 1. For solid except slate, liquid to gaseous fuels volumes of products of complete combustion md/kg given by the formulas: a. volume of dry gas: V sg. = V o sg. + a t -1V o = V RO2 + V o N2 + a r -1V o ; 16.23 b.obem water vapor: V h2O = V o h2O + 0,0161 a m -1V o ; 16.24 a. the total volume of the combustion products is determined by 3.31. 2. For the full amount of oil shale combustion products m 3 /kg: V GK. = V RO2k + V o N2 + V h2O = V RO2k + V o N2 + 0,01249N p + W p + 0,0161 a r V o . 16.25 The content of CO 2 , S 2 O and RO 2 in dry gas by the complete combustion of fuel is determined by the formulas: CO 2 = V CO2 /V sg. ; 16.26 S 2 O = V SO2 /V sg. ; 16.27 RO 2 = V RO2 /V sg. . 16.28 The maximum content% triatomic gases RO 2 max in dry gas by the complete combustion of fuel: RO 2 max = 21/1 + b , 16.29 b -fuel performance; for solid and liquid: b = 2,35 H p -0,126O p + 0,04N p /C p + 0,375S p L ; 16.30 for gas: b = 0,21 0,01N 2 + 0,79V o /V RO2 -0.79. 16.31 The content of nitrogen% N 2 , and oxygen in dry gases and complete combustion of fuel: N 2 = 100-RO 2 -O 2 ; 16.32 O 2 = 21- b RO 2 -RO 2 . 16.33 Weight combustion products.




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